The Complete Anatomy of Erection

The Complete Anatomy of Erection

Did you ever have erectile dysfunction? It is a small problem which almost every man suffers once or twice in his whole life; however, if it persists, it does not remain a problem but becomes a severe blow to one's self-esteem. Now, when one reaches out for solutions, he gets stuffed with hundreds o

Did you ever have erectile dysfunction? It is a small problem which almost every man suffers once or twice in his whole life; however, if it persists, it does not remain a problem but becomes a severe blow to one's self-esteem. Now, when one reaches out for solutions, he gets stuffed with hundreds of articles with the medicine names, advice of doing yoga and exercises, and with natural tips and tricks. Sometimes, these articles hit bulls-eye with the slightest precision, and the problem disappears as if it had never been there; however, the problem persists at others.    

Is there any way to solve the problem? Yes. There is! How? You can solve this problem by knowing the anatomy of the erection.    

How to start? Let's start with understanding the three essential parts of the penis.  

  • Root – The part of the penis connects the outer part of the penis to the body. It is located in the perineal pouch, which is part of the pelvic floor. The root of the penis has two types of erectile tissue and two types of muscles.
  • Erectile tissue:    
  1. Bulb - It is present in the middle of the penis's root, through which the urethra passes.   
  2. Crura - There are two Crura in the root of the penis on either side of the bulb.  
  • Muscles 
  1. Bulbospongiosus- There are two bulbospongiosus muscles in the root of the penis, which surround the heart's bulb part.   
  2. Ischiocavernosus- there are two ischiocavernosus muscles in the root of the penis.   
  • Body: The whole length of the penis is present between the top gland, and the root is considered the body. It remains free and thus mobile for easy excretion of the urine. It also gets hard because of sexual stimulation—the connects to the root through the pubic symphysis. There are two types of erectile tissues - corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. 
  • Corpora cavernosa- there are two corpora cavernosa named erectile tissue in the body of the penis. Found above the corpus spongiosum, it is a sponge-like blood storage tissue consisting of many arteries and veins. A major highway runs in the center of corpora cavernosa, filling it with blood to cause the erection.  
  • Corpus spongiosum: Corpus spongiosum is located just below the two corpora cavernosa, which runs to the penis's gland. It is also a sponge-like blood storage tissue but is smaller in circumference than corpora cavernosa. The urethra runs in the center of corpora cavernosa, through which urine and sperm pass. It swells during erection to open the urethra for proper ejaculation of sperm.   
  • Tunica albuginea- It is the envelope covering the external penis to the tip of the gland. It surrounds both the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum to the tip of the penis. Moreover, it works as a foreskin. It is a two-layered covering with an outer layer known as a longitudinal layer and an inner layer known as a circular layer.  


  • Glans: it is the topmost part of the penis, which resembles a cone. Glan is a plug-like extension of the corpus spongiosum, possessing a lot of nerves of external stimulation. It also has the external urethral orifice, at which the urethra ends.  


Anatomy of erection   

Erection in males results from the sexual stimulation, which could happen due to different reasons, such as any visual or mental stimulation from something sexual.  After the stimulus, the brain takes control. The brain sends signals to the nerves present in the penis. And thus, relaxes the penis, which causes the blood to flow in the arteries and veins of the penis.    

Ischiocavernosus, a muscle present in the penis's root, forces the blood from the cura to the corpus cavernosal, causing an erection. During the erection, the testicles release testosterone, which determines the duration and hardness of the erection. After that, the membranes and supporting tissues of the penis trap the blood within the penis.   

When the penis gets filled with blood, it gets erected. The erection is supported by ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus muscles of the root of the penis. And the muscles surrounding the body's spongiosum and cavernosum of the penis. The pressure which builds in the penis is then supported and contained by the tunica albuginea. Moreover, during the ejaculation, muscles tighten up to force the blood out of the penis. After that, bulbospongiosus, which surrounds the penis's bulb, contracts and forces the leftover sperm from the urethra.    

What Is Ejaculation?   

Ejaculation can be defined as the final stage of the man's arousal - the ejaculation of sperms produced in the testicles of the man. The testicles are connected to the penis through small muscular tubes known as Vas deferens or ductus deferens. When a man is aroused, the vas deferens pump the sperm from the testicles to the urethra.   Then the fluid is added to the sperm by seminal vesicles, which helps maintain the ph of the urethra and helps the sperms survive.    

The urethra senses when the sperm and fluid are mixed and decides when they are ready for ejaculation.    

At the time of sexual excitement, the urethra sends a signal to the spinal cord, which carries the muscles' message at the penis's base to quickly and powerfully contract. They force the sperm out of the urethra, which is known as ejaculation.    


Therefore, a good, healthy, and firm erection is achieved by healthy blood flow, proper hormonal levels, and an excellent mood. We can take measures to ensure that it happens. Moreover, we can justify the doctors' advice with information about the penis and erection anatomy.

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