Two hormones - progesterone and estrogen, mostly control fertility and menstruation in female humans. Progesterone is considered to be a steroid hormone that belongs to a classification of hormones called progestogens. It is produced and secreted by the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine gland that the female body produces during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is mainly responsible for the preparation of the endometrium for the potential of pregnancy after ovulation. It is responsible for triggering the uterus lining to thicken to get ready to accept a fertilized egg. It restricts muscle contractions in the uterus, which would consequently cause the body to reject an egg. Hence, when the body is producing high levels of progesterone in the system, ovulation does not occur. If a woman does not become pregnant, the corpus luteum breaks down, which lowers progesterone levels in the body. Suppose the body does conceive and forms a zygote. In that case, progesterone continues doing its task to stimulate the body to provide the blood vessels in the endometrium that feeds the growing foetus. A deficiency of progesterone in the female body might cause abnormal uterine bleeding, irregular periods, frequent miscarriages, and abdominal pain during pregnancy.
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